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Phosphorus containing copper anodes and chloride additions in the plating bath are employed to cause the formation of a black “protective” film on the anode surfaces during electroplating. This protective film reduces anode sludging and improves the quality and efficiency of the plating process. This paper describes tests done to characterize the best process window in an effort to optimize black film formation. Variables evaluated include: phosphorus content of anodes, chloride content of the bath and anode current density. Anode variables include: anode purity, grain structure and work hardening. “Best operating practice” recommendations concerning these variables are suggested for the plater
Numerous questions have been raised concerning the distribution of phosphorus in phosphorus containing copper anodes. Phosphorus is added as an alloying element in amounts varying between 0.01% to 0.1% for the purpose of creating a film on the anode during electroplating. We Chhajed Steel & Alloys Pvt Ltd. best Manufacturers, Exporters & Stockist of Phosphorous Copper Anode in India. This black film protects the anode from acidic electrolyte corrosive attack and thus inhibits grain boundary corrosion and particulate formation in the electrolyte. The problem raised by particulates is that they may settle on the components being plated and cause surface defects.
Copper anodes are manufactured by a variety of methods and processes, including hot casting and cold rolling. Shapes, such as balls, are made by both hot and cold forging and rolling processes. Claims have been made by manufacturers and end users as to the benefits of the particular processes in making superior performing anodes. In particular, phosphorus distribution in the copper anode has been cited as of importance to the electroplating process.
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